Tuss is easy to carve. Many modern Cappadocian houses are made of large building blocks of it. In previous centuries, however, it made more sense to just carve a house, been a community, directly into the rock.
You’ll see those arrays of small square holes throughout this photo essay. Those are for pigeon nests. The droppings were collected to fertilize grapes, reputed to have been cultivated first in this area.